Vie de Benjamin Franklin, écrite par lui-même - Tome II suivie de ses œuvres morales, politiques et littéraires

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 94

les avantages que promirent les lords commissaires du
commerce et des colonies, dans le rapport qu'il firent en 1768.--Nous
croyons qu'il nous suffit de dire que ces principaux Pensylvaniens dont
parle le rapport, et--«qui ont présenté leurs noms et leur association
au conseil de sa majesté, dans l'intention de faire des établissemens à
la Nouvelle-Écosse,»--ont été convaincus, depuis plusieurs années, de
l'impossibilité d'engager des habitans à quitter les colonies du centre,
pour aller s'établir dans cette province; et même que ceux, à qui on
avoit persuadé d'y aller, sont, pour la plupart, retournés chez eux, en
se plaignant beaucoup de la dureté et de la longueur des hivers.

Quant aux deux autres provinces, nous sommes persuadés qu'il est
moralement impossible que les habitans des contrées, situées entre les
trente-septième et le quarantième degré de latitude nord, dont le climat
est tempéré et où il y a encore beaucoup de terres inoccupées, se
déterminent à aller s'établir dans les provinces brûlantes et mal-saines
des deux Florides. Il serait tout aussi aisé d'engager les habitans de
Montpellier à quitter leur climat pour les parties septentrionales de la
Russie, ou pour les bords du Sénégal. Enfin, les inspirations de la
nature, et l'expérience de tous les âges prouvent qu'un peuple né et
vivant dans un climat tempéré, et dans le voisinage d'un pays riche,
sain et bien cultivé, ne peut point être forcé à traverser plusieurs
centaines de milles pour se rendre dans un _port de mer_, faire un
voyage _par mer_, et s'établir dans des latitudes excessivement froides
ou excessivement chaudes.

Si le comté d'York, en Angleterre, n'étoit ni cultivé, ni habité, et que
les habitans, qui sont encore plus au sud de l'île, manquassent de
terres, se laisseroient-ils conduire dans le nord de l'Écosse? Ne
voudroient-ils pas plutôt, en dépit de toutes les oppositions, s'établir
dans le fertile comté d'York?

Voilà ce que nous nous sommes crus dans l'obligation de remarquer à
l'égard des principes généraux que contient le rapport de 1768.--Nous
espérons avoir suffisamment démontré que les argumens, dont on y fait
usage, ne peuvent être d'aucun poids contre notre pétition; et qu'ils ne
doivent s'appliquer comme l'exprime le rapport, «qu'aux colonies, qu'on
propose d'établir aux frais du royaume, et à la distance de plus de
quinze cents milles de la mer, où les habitans étant dans
l'impossibilité de fournir de quoi payer les marchandises de la
Grande-Bretagne, seroient probablement réduits à en fabriquer eux-mêmes,
et resteroient séparés des anciennes colonies par d'immenses déserts.»

Il ne nous reste maintenant qu'à demander si, en 1768, l'intention des
lords commissaires du commerce et des colonies étoit que le territoire,
qui devoit être renfermé

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

Page 0
_ _And indeed the scene he opens, strikes us with a pleasing astonishment, whilst he conducts us by a train of facts and judicious.
Page 6
Electrify the shot, and the ball will be repelled to the distance of four or five inches, more or.
Page 7
To prove that the electrical fire is _drawn off_ by the point, if you take the blade of the bodkin out of the wooden handle, and fix it in a stick of sealing wax, and then present it at the distance aforesaid, or if you bring it very near, no such effect follows; but sliding one finger along the wax till you touch the blade, and the ball flies to the shot immediately.
Page 8
A person standing on wax, and rubbing the tube, and another person on wax drawing the fire; they will both of them, (provided they do not stand so as to touch one another) appear to be electrised, to a person standing on the floor; that is, he will perceive a spark on approaching each of them with his knuckle.
Page 12
Since we are of opinion, that there is really no more electrical fire in the phial after what is called its _charging_, than before, nor less after its _discharging_; excepting only the small spark that might be given to, and taken from, the non-electric matter, if separated from the bottle, which spark may not be equal to a five hundredth part of what is called the explosion.
Page 18
Two small hemispheres of wood are then fixed with cement to the middle of the upper and under sides, centrally opposite, and in each of them a thick strong wire eight or ten inches long, which together make the axis of the wheel.
Page 22
The Ocean is a compound of water, a non-electric, and salt an electric _per se_.
Page 23
20.
Page 25
In the collision they shake off and drop their water, which represents rain.
Page 27
As electrified clouds pass over a country, high hills and high trees, lofty towers, spires, masts of ships, chimneys, _&c.
Page 29
_I am, Sir, Your much obliged Humble Servant_, B.
Page 34
Nor.
Page 36
Suspend the beam by a packthread from the cieling, so that the bottom of the scales may be about a foot from the floor: The scales will move round in a circle by the untwisting of the packthread.
Page 37
From the middle of the stand, let an iron rod rise and pass bending out of the door, and then upright 20 or 30 feet, pointed very sharp at the end.
Page 42
But, if the electrical fluid so easily pervades glass, how does the vial become _charged_ (as we term it) when we hold it in our hands? Would not the fire thrown in by the wire pass through to our hands, and so escape into the floor? Would not the bottle in that case be left just as we found it, uncharged, as we know a metal bottle so attempted to be charged would be? Indeed, if there be the least crack, the minutest solution of continuity in the glass, though it remains so tight that nothing else we know of will pass, yet the extremely subtile electrical fluid flies through such a crack with the greatest freedom, and such a bottle we know can never be charged: What then makes the difference between such a bottle and one that is sound, but this, that the fluid can pass through the one, and not through the other?[8] 29.
Page 44
When the glass has received and, by its attraction, forced closer together so much of this electrified fluid, as that the power of attracting and condensing in the one, is equal to the power of expansion in the other, it can imbibe no more, and that remains its constant whole quantity; but each surface would receive more, if the repellency of what is in the opposite surface did not resist its entrance.
Page 48
Now the globe being turn'd, could draw no fire from the floor through the machine, the communication that way being cut off by the thick glass plate under the cushion: it must then draw it through the chains whose ends were dipt in the oil of turpentine.
Page 49
And indeed, as that smell so readily leaves the electrical matter, and adheres to the knuckle receiving the sparks, and to other things; I suspect that it never was connected with it, but arises instantaneously from something in the air acted upon by it.
Page 52
An Explication of all the various Appearances of the late Comet, both in its own Trajectory and the Firmament of fixt Stars, to its setting in the Sun Beams: Illustrated with a Plan of the Earth's and Comet's Orbits.
Page 54
[10] In the dark the electrical fluid may be seen on the cushion in two semi-circles or half-moons, one on the fore part, the other on the back part of the cushion, just where the globe and cushion separate.